The sky was clear. Having nothing else to do, he started counting the stars. He said to himself, 'I shall be rewarded for this profound service to humanity. People will say, 'there is the man who knows the exact number of stars in the sky. If you have any trouble on that account consult him. He will be your night guide for the skies'.'
R K Narayan propagates Oriental philosophy in all his novels and The Guide  is no exception. In Hindu philosophy realisation of the truth comes after going through the acid test of illusion or 'maya'.* I would add that the ability to perceive 'reality' is the end product of experience. Followers of Lord Krishna regard humans as souls composed of Krishna's highest energy, with bodies of 'maya,' his lowest, material, and illusory energy. This belief also entails taboos against gambling, using intoxicants, eating meat, and engaging in illicit sex. Performing God's work with no thought of reward will result in the purification of the illusory 'maya'.
The illusion in Raju's life is Rosie, who entices him away from the daily grind of normal life. When Raju sees her for the first time, he describes her,
Much later, in Chapter 9, again she is described thus,
Thus Raju never views Rosie in the real world but almost in a dream, and Rosie becomes the 'mohini'* of the novel. Her meeting Raju on the railway platform is significant since until then the railway has been his life, but with Rosie's entrance his familiar world will be disrupted. He will be tempted to discard his attachment to the railway for a far greater and passionate attachment.
Rosie's role as the 'mohini' in Raju's life is confirmed by her obsession with snakes. The animal imagery has been well used by Narayan. The role of snake-women as enchantresses is common in the Indian mind-frame. Moreover, we have the conversation between Rosie and Raju's mother, (a traditional Indian woman steeped in religious and folk beliefs), to reinforce this notion:
There is something strongly sensuous about Rosie. She exudes sensuality since she has been involved in a marriage that does not satisfy her physical needs. There is enough evidence in the text to suggest that there is no sexual communion between the married couple. In chapter 5, we have Raju's own words to back this theory:
In Chapter 9 the point is finally driven home:
The artist in Rosie needs stimulus, both intellectual and physical. Marco provides the first type to a small extent while providing absolutely nothing of the second. The almost animal-like passion lurking within Rosie and Raju is symbolically projected when they are waiting in Peak House on the veranda to watch the animals come out. Narayan is very subtle in his use of language, allowing us the freedom to read beyond the text:
This part of the conversation almost sounds like lovemaking. It is interesting to note that Marco too, joins them immediately after but leaves within a very short time. I personally believe that his leaving is primarily because he cannot respond to that animal lust since he is sexually impotent.
Now we must consider a very important question which many readers of The Guide have probably asked, 'Who is seducing whom?' My earlier suggestion that Rosie is a 'mohini' should not be taken to mean that she is playing the role of the mythological seductress consciously. 'Mohini' is another aspect of the 'maya' that Raju is steeped in; she can be also called a living embodiment of the illusion in Raju's life. Here I would like to quote again from Soul Mountain:
It has been pointed out that Rosie does encourage Raju in certain areas. When Raju goes to plead with her to come out and join him and Marco on their trip to Peak House, the conversation does seem to show a certain degree of attraction on Rosie's part towards Raju:
Later in the same chapter we find this motif being reinforced:
It would be erroneous to call this 'seduction', or subtle encouragement. This is the frank and free speech of a woman who desperately needs the warmth of company. The desire is within her but she never uses seduction to satisfy it. Raju acts like a professional lover, knowing exactly how to draw her in into the tangled web of lust. The question still remains as to why Rosie allowed Raju to have sex with her. The main motivation was not lust, but something described by Raju before he enters her room:
The debt is for his giving her the attention and care she needs, and she has to redeem it. Moreover the entire affair would have been over had not Raju very intelligently kept on reminding her of a future career in dancing with his active support. Raju desperately needs to hang on this 'maya', and when he enters her bedroom he also,
His absorption into the world of illusion is now complete. That Raju is seduced by the charm of the illusion is suggested by Narayan's use of language. For example:
If Raju can provide Rosie with the physical stimulation she needs then why does their union become incompatible? The reason is clear. Raju, with his lack of proper education can never provide Rosie with the creative stimulation she needs. He bluffs left right and centre about his appreciation of her talent because it is that loose string by which their relationship survives. Raju may have given her a 'new lease of life' but as she reminds us through the rendition of the Tamil song, for her 'Lover means always God.' As Rosie gets absorbed in her own world, Raju is slowly pushed out since he is fundamentally incapable of being a part of that sphere of pure creativity. The growing tension in their relationship is seen, for example, in these passages:
Whenever I watched her sway her figure, if there was no one about I constantly interrupted her performance although I was supposed to watch her from an art critic's point of view. She pushed me away with, 'What has come over you?'
Finally Raju admits his shortcomings in Chapter 9 where he fails to fall into place with the musicians and actors who come to visit Rosie/Nalini. He admits to,
This is where we suddenly realise why Rosie has a tremendous amount of respect for Marco, even after she has left him permanently. The two are similar in nature since both prefer being captivated by their individual work. Both are artists wrapped up in their art. Raju may say of Marco that,
but there is not much difference between the absorption of Rosie/Nalini in her world of aesthetics and Raju in his world of lust and power. The conflict is in the fact that each world cannot accommodate the other, and hence we are left with three individuals at the end of the novel.
Does Raju finally manage to transform himself into a true 'swami'? Perhaps this passage suggests an answer:
This passage assumes a great deal of significance in showing the gradual stages of Raju's development from a normal everyday guide to a guide for the progress of the soul. The title of the novel assumes greater importance since its scope now becomes deeper. The novel is now seen to no longer simply narrate the story of a guide called 'Railway Raju', but also shows how the same guide assumes a role far greater in meaning.
In this passage lies the seed for the 'swami' Raju who will set an example of selflessness by guiding his fellow humans across the never-ending river of life. Moreover this passage denotes Raju's transition from the life active to the life contemplative - a transition from illusion to reality. This counting of the stars or measuring the immeasurable is a symbolic portrayal of Raju trying to fathom the immensity of life. He gets exhausted easily since for the first time he is contemplating an aspect of the world which is not only bereft of personal gain but also has no material implication in his personal life. As Narayan tells us in the novel itself,
This propels Raju to contemplate the limitless expanse of life, and to attempt the absorption of that limitlessness in him. It is almost a Herculean task and the effort drains him emotionally more than physically.
So, what is The Guide all about? In my view it is the story of one man's journey through life. It is his journey through a maze of illusions and the achievement of universal truth. Here we may use the concept of moksha,* or freedom, as stated by the Hindu philosopher and theologian Shankara, who said that existence is a struggle for 'Atman'* (the individual self) to become 'Brahman'* (the pure being) where the atman is prevented from reaching the ideal state of Brahman because of 'avidya' or ignorance, which drives us into the arms of maya (illusion) where we blindly seek our true self. Through the proper knowledge of Vedanta, however, the individual soul recognises the limitless reality forever existing behind the cosmic veil of maya, realises that its own true nature is identical with Brahman, and through this self-realisation achieves moksha. Through Raju Narayan invites us to share the limitlessness of this freedom which unifies us with the cosmos.
Maya: The word has been given numerous meanings. Maya actually signifies the psychological state of anybody under illusion. Therefore it doesn't prescribe the theory that the world is an illusion but rather that the illusion actually lies in our point of view.
Mohini: In Indian mythology, during the churning of the oceans by the demons and the Gods in an attempt to produce 'amrita' or the elixir of life which would grant them immortality, Vishnu transformed himself into a beautiful woman called Mohini and stole the demons' share of the elixir by seducing them. Therefore Mohini in the Indian context signifies an extension of the divine illusion. Vishnu is sometimes referred to as 'Mayavi' or the creator of 'maya'.
Moksha: The Hindu equivalent of the Buddhist doctrine of Nirvana. Moksha, in Hinduism signifies liberation from the cycle of reincarnation and from maya (the illusory appearance in this world). Moksha is a Sanskrit word meaning 'liberation.'
Bramhan: The basis of Hinduism is the idea that the multitude of things and events around us are but manifestations of the same ultimate reality. This reality is called the Bramhan. It is the inner essence of all things.
Atman: The manifestation of the ultimate reality in the human soul is the Atman. It is the individual reality.
1. Xingjian, Gao. Soul Mountain. Translated by Mabel Lee. 1990
2. Narayan, R. K. The Guide. 1975 (First published 1958)
© Amitangshu Acharya, June 2003